Chilean flower visitors

Latest version published by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso on 07 January 2021 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 12,001 records in English (222 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (18 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (15 KB)


This database contains a large dataset of Chilean flower visitors (insects) with 12,001 records from 118 species of 21 families belonging to four orders (Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera), comprising over a century of data. This dataset contains samples from six major institutions in Chile (National Museum of Natural History, University of Chile, Metropolitan University of Education Sciences, Austral University of Chile, the Chilean Agricultural and Livestock Bureau, and Luis Peña's private entomological collection). A first effort to digitize this information was made in 2008 through the IABIN project that gathered pollinator datasets from Latin America (led by Cecilia Smith-Ramirez and conducted by Karen Yañez, supported by the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity - IEB), but when the funding was over, the database became offline. Now, in the frame of the SURPASS2 project, we recovered this dataset, and performed a major data cleaning, updated the taxonomy, checked the geographic coordinates (where available), and standardized it to DarwinCore to make it freely available through GBIF. This endeavor adds to a previous dataset published in 2020, aiming to make this natural legacy open to everyone and encourage more research in this field.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 12,001 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Lopez-Aliste M, Fonturbel F (2021): Chilean flower visitors. v1.0. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Dataset/Occurrence. http://gbif-chile.mma.gob.cl/ipt/resource?r=flower_visitors&v=1.0


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: ec4e6fa9-9bae-4e5b-af77-17cf0a1a6725.  Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Chile.


Occurrence; bee; flies; beetles; butterflies; Chile; Specimen; Specimen


Manuel Lopez-Aliste
  • Author
  • Originator
Database specialist
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso
Av. Universidad 330
2373223 Valparaiso
Francisco Fonturbel
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
  • Principal Investigator
Associate profesor
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso
Av. Universidad 330
2373223 Valparaiso
Cecilia Smith-Ramirez
  • Content Provider
Universidad de Los Lagos
Karen Yañez
  • Content Provider
Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad
Antonio Saraiva
  • Programmer
Full professor
Universidade de Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Christian Jofre-Perez
  • Curator
Associate researcher
Universidad de Playa Ancha

Geographic Coverage

Most of the Chilean continental territory is covered, with some specimens from Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador that were held at the collections included in this dataset.

Bounding Coordinates South West [-56.365, -76.992], North East [-13.923, -60.117]

Taxonomic Coverage

This dataset contains 118 species from 21 families belonging to four orders: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera

Order Hymenoptera (Bees), Diptera (Flies), Coleoptera (Beetles), Lepidoptera (Butterflies)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1905-01-01 / 2010-12-31

Project Data

SURPASS2 is an international partnership between Argentina, Brazil, Chile and the UK, working on pollinators and pollination services in South America. Our objectives are to develop knowledge, build capacity and define tangible actions for conservation and sustainable use of pollinators. SURPASS2 will deliver evidence for the creation of resilient pollination services for sustainable economic growth, positive agricultural and environmental outcomes for improved human health and wellbeing. Through our research activities, we are providing crucial knowledge to food producers, policy-makers, land managers and the public who need better evidence based tools to support decision making for sustainable outcomes. We aim to offer improvements to the future cultural and social recognition of the vital roles that pollinators, and those that work with them, play in sustaining crop production and ecosystem functioning.

Title Safeguarding pollination services in a changing world: theory into practice (SURPASS2)
Identifier NE/S011870/1
Funding NERC (UK) and ANID (Chile)
Study Area Description Continental Chile

The personnel involved in the project:

Francisco Fonturbel
Manuel Lopez-Aliste
Christian Jofre-Perez

Sampling Methods

Insect samples collected throughout Chile, dried and pinned at scientific collections.

Study Extent This database contains the specimens recorded in six scientific collections in Chile. Main flower visitor insect groups were represented in this database
Quality Control A deep data quality control procedure was applied to clean the original database (i.e., the one generated in 2008 by the IABIN project) as it presented several problems. Also, this database contains very old records from different collections, the quality level of the information presented is variable and we urge caution when using location data from samples collected before 1950. Taxonomy updated with Taxon Match. After a deep taxonomic revision process, we have four species with partially unresolved taxonomy, being recognized to the genus level by GBIF taxon match. Therefore, we urge caution when using records belonging to those four species (Mordella erythrura, Mordella luctuosa, Trichophthalma philippi, and Trichophthalma herbsti).

Method step description:

  1. Database curation for data quality and accuracy.
  2. Database curation for taxonomy.

Collection Data

Collection Name Universidad Austral de Chile
Collection Identifier UACH
Collection Name Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación
Collection Identifier UMCE
Parent Collection Identifier Instituto de Entomologia
Collection Name Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
Collection Identifier MNHN
Collection Name Universidad de Chile
Collection Identifier UCH
Collection Name Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero
Collection Identifier SAG
Collection Name Colección de Luis Peña
Collection Identifier CELP
Specimen preservation methods Dried,  Pinned

Additional Metadata

The processing and updating of this database was funded by the SURPASS2 project: https://bee-surpass.org

Purpose The purpose of this dataset is to digitize the natural legacy of six major scientific collections in Chile, making it available to anyone that wants to use this information for research or informative purposes.
Maintenance Description No regular maintenance planned.
Alternative Identifiers http://gbif-chile.mma.gob.cl/ipt/resource?r=flower_visitors