CHECKLIST

Multi-taxa inventory of naturalized species in Chile (including native Chilean species introduced in other areas of the national territory outside of their original range)

Latest version published by Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB) on 27 August 2021 Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB)
Here we present a multi-taxa inventory of naturalized alien species recorded on continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats, including eight taxonomic groups. We identified 1,122 species. These comprise 790 vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); 31 nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)]; 18 marine and freshwater macro and micro algae; 71 fungi; 39 terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds); 108 insects; 37 marine and freshwater invertebrates and vertebrates (6 polychaetes, 3 mollusks and 28 Pisces); and 28 terrestrial gastropods. For all taxonomic groups, naturalized species were found to mainly be distributed in regions with Mediterranean and temperate climates, with few at either extreme of the ... More

Description

Here we present a multi-taxa inventory of naturalized alien species recorded on continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats, including eight taxonomic groups. We identified 1,122 species. These comprise 790 vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); 31 nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)]; 18 marine and freshwater macro and micro algae; 71 fungi; 39 terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds); 108 insects; 37 marine and freshwater invertebrates and vertebrates (6 polychaetes, 3 mollusks and 28 Pisces); and 28 terrestrial gastropods. For all taxonomic groups, naturalized species were found to mainly be distributed in regions with Mediterranean and temperate climates, with few at either extreme of the country. The invasion curves show that naturalized species first underwent a positive increment, followed by an apparent plateau phase, mainly in vascular plants, insects and vertebrates. In fungi, marine and freshwater macro and microalgae, vertebrates and invertebrates, the cumulative number of naturalized species increased sharply starting in the early 20th century; the lack of collections before 1900 is also evident. When considering naturalized species as a whole, this inventory highlights that the rate of new naturalizations consistently increased after 1950, especially for some taxonomic groups such as insects, fungi, and vascular plants. This multi-taxa inventory of naturalized species provides a platform for national reporting on biodiversity indicators and highlights areas where Chile must invest resources to manage biological invasions.

Data Records

The data in this checklist resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 1,120 records.

1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Taxon (core)
    1120
  • Distribution 
    1120

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 1,120 records in English (64 kB) - Update frequency: unknown
Metadata as an EML file download in English (38 kB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (36 kB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Fuentes N, Marticorena A, Saldaña A, Jerez R V, Ortiz J C, Victoriano P, Moreno R, Larraín J, Villaseñor C, Palfner G, Sánchez P, Pauchard A (2021): Multi-taxa inventory of naturalized species in Chile (including native Chilean species introduced in other areas of the national territory outside of their original range). v1.2. Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB). Dataset/Checklist. http://gbif-chile.mma.gob.cl/ipt/resource?r=naturalizadas&v=1.2

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: fd2572b5-24a1-445c-9918-a3811ea010d1.  Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Chile.

Keywords

Checklist; Alien species; Chile; database; invasion periods; rate of introduction

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Nicol Fuentes
Investigadora
Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Alicia Marticorena
Investigadora
Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Alfredo Saldaña
Investigador
Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Rosa Viviane Jerez
Investigadora
Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Juan Carlos Ortiz
Investigador
Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Pedro Victoriano
Investigador
Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Rodrigo Moreno
Investigador
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Santo Tomás
Av. Ejercito 146, Santiago, Chile
Santiago
CL
Juan Larraín
Investigador
Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Campus Curauma
Av. Universidad 330, Valparaíso, Chile
Valparaíso
CL
Cristóbal Villaseñor
Investigador
Laboratorio de Estudios Algales (ALGALAB), Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Götz Palfner
Investigador
Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción
Víctor Lamas 1290; Concepción, Chile
Concepción
CL
Paulina Sánchez
Investigadora
Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB), Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción
Victoria 631 Fac. Ciencias Forestales – Universidad de Concepción
Concepción
CL
Aníbal Pauchard
Investigador
Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB), Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción
Victoria 631 Fac. Ciencias Forestales – Universidad de Concepción
Concepción
CL

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Paulina Sánchez
Coordinadora
Laboratorio Invasiones Biológicas
Victoria 631 Fac. Ciencias Forestales – Universidad de Concepción
Concepción
CL
+56412661132
http://www.lib.udec.cl

Who filled in the metadata:

Antonia Rey-Aguirre
Asistente
Laboratorio Invasiones Biológicas
Victoria 631 Fac. Ciencias Forestales – Universidad de Concepción
Concepción
CL

Who else was associated with the resource:

User
Antonia Rey-Aguirre

Geographic Coverage

Continental Chile (17.5°–56°S; 4300 km)

Bounding Coordinates South West [-90, -180], North East [90, 180]

Project Data

Joint project carried out with the support of GEF/MMA/UNDP EEI AJF, FONDECYT N ° 1181688, CONICYT PIA AFB 170008 to prepare the Catalog of feral/naturalized exotic species in Chile.

Title “Consultoría para elaborar el catálogo de las especies exóticas asilvestradas/naturalizadas en Chile“
Identifier Proyecto GEF/MMA/PNUD EEI AJF, FONDECYT N ° 1181688, CONICYT PIA AFB 170008
Funding SCT Nº 20/2015, Proyecto GEF/MMA/PNUD EEI AJF, FONDECYT N ° 1181688, CONICYT PIA AFB 170008
Study Area Description Continental Chile
Design Description We performed an exhaustive bibliographic revision and used herbarium and zoological collections to identify all the species recorded as naturalized in continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats for each of the eight taxonomic groups: a) vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); b) nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)]; c) marine and freshwater macro and micro algae; d) fungi; e) terrestrial vertebrate fauna (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals); f) insects; g) marine and freshwater vertebrates (Pisces) and invertebrates (polychaetes and mollusks); and h) terrestrial gastropods. More information in DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.60.55366 https://neobiota.pensoft.net/article/55366/

The personnel involved in the project:

Originator
Aníbal Pauchard

Sampling Methods

We performed an exhaustive bibliographic revision and used herbarium and zoological collections to identify all the species recorded as naturalized in continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats for each of the eight taxonomic groups: a) vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); b) nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)]; c) marine and freshwater macro and micro algae; d) fungi; e) terrestrial vertebrate fauna (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals); f) insects; g) marine and freshwater vertebrates (Pisces) and invertebrates (polychaetes and mollusks); and h) terrestrial gastropods. For each taxonomic group, we used the most accepted and comprehensive definition of naturalized species. In general terms, naturalized species were considered as those that are not native to Chile (i.e. nonindigenous) and whose presence is due to intentional or accidental introduction as a result of human activities. We considered all organisms that are naturalized or invasive, but not those that survive only with human assistance (Richardson et al. 2000).

Study Extent Continental Chile, extends over 38.5 degrees of latitude (17.5°–56°S; 4300 km), and administratively, the country is divided into 16 regions (which range from 15,403 to 132,291 km2 in size) and 56 provinces, sequentially ordered from north to south.
Quality Control The preliminary list of each taxonomic group was then verified by experts (local and international). Thus, we had a second opinion regarding the inclusion or rejection of naturalized species in the database. For each species, we made a substantial effort to compile and organize a database integrating both species characteristics and spatial distribution information. We checked all records for their scientific names and spatial distributions.

Method step description:

  1. For data processing and publication, the Darwin Core (DwC) biodiversity standard and the database management tools provided by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) were followed. This process was carried out as follows: The Taxon core was established, with an identifier for the information set of each species (taxonID) and the taxonomy data for each species was added, following the Darwin Core format for taxonomy, complementing the information provided by each researcher with the GBIF Species Matching tool. Then, the field taxonRemarks was added to indicate the origin of each species (native range). In addition to the Taxon core, the Ocurrences extension was included to document the distribution records of each species, using the occurrenceStatus, establishmentMeans and locality fields to indicate the region(s) of Chile where the species is present as an introduced species. The dynamicProperties field was used to indicate the type of introduction, and the eventDate field to indicate the year of the first record of the species. In the verbatimEventDate field the information was included in the original format in which it was recorded by each researcher. Finally, the field occurrenceRemarks was added to include information on the impacts of the introduction of each species.

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