Records of Parochlus steinenii in the Maritime Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions

Latest version published by Universidad de Magallanes on May 27, 2020 Universidad de Magallanes

This study provides a complete description of the geographical distribution of Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae), the only flying insect occurring naturally in the Antarctic continent. The distribution encompasses the South Shetland Islands (Maritime Antarctic), South Georgia (sub-Antarctic) and parts of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (CHBR, southern Chile).

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 65 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

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Data as a DwC-A file download 65 records in English (15 KB) - Update frequency: as needed
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Metadata as an RTF file download in English (27 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Gañan M, Contador T, Rendoll J, Simoes F, Pérez C, Graham G, Castillo S, Kennedy J, Convey P, (2020): Records of Parochlus steinenii in the Maritime Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. v1. Universidad de Magallanes. Dataset/Occurrence. http://gbif-chile.mma.gob.cl/ipt/resource?r=records_parochlus_steinenii&v=1.0

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Universidad de Magallanes. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 30c49fbf-4e2e-482e-bb49-4d294bc332cb.  Universidad de Magallanes publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Chile.

Keywords

Occurrence; Specimen; Parochlus steinenii; winged Antarctic midge; South Shetland Islands; South Georgia; Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Melisa Gañan
Researcher
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL) Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305 / +5698186306
Tamara Contador
Associate Professor of University of Magallanes
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Javier Rendoll
PhD student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Felipe Simoes
PhD student
Departament of zoology, University Museum of Zoology. British Antarctic Survey. Downing Street Cambridge GB
Carolina Pérez
MsC student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL
Gillian Graham
MsC student
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas 1511W Sycamore Denton US
Simon Castillo
PhD student
Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica Avda. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 340 Santiago CL
James Kennedy
Regents Professor of Biological Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes 1511W Sycamore Denton US
Peter Convey
Individual Merit Scientist
British Antarctic Survey. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge GB

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Melisa Gañan
Researcher
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL). Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305 / +5698186306
Tamara Contador
Associate Professor of University of Magallanes
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams CL +56612621305

Who filled in the metadata:

Melisa Gañan
Researcher
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara. University of Magallanes (UMAG) Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305 / +5698186306
Tamara Contador
Associate Professor of University of Magallanes
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara. University of Magallanes (UMAG) Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Javier Rendoll
PhD student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Felipe Simoes
PhD student
Departament of zoology, University Museum of Zoology. British Antarctic Survey. Downing Street Cambridge GB
Carolina Pérez
MsC student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL
Gillian Graham
MsC student
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas 1511W Sycamore Denton US
Simon Castillo
PhD student
Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica Avda. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 340 Santiago CL
James Kennedy
Regents Professor of Biological Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes 1511W Sycamore Denton US
Peter Convey
Individual Merit Scientist
British Antarctic Survey. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge GB

Who else was associated with the resource:

Author
Melisa Gañan
Researcher
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL). Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305 / +5698186306
Principal Investigator
Tamara Contador
Associate Professor of University of Magallanes
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Millennium Nucleus of Invasive Salmonids (INVASAL). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Author
Javier Rendoll
PhD Student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL +56612621305
Author
Felipe Simoes
PhD Student
Department of Zoology, University Museum of Zoology. British Antarctic Survey. Downing Street Cambridge GB
Author
Carolina Pérez
MsC student
Laboratorio de estudios dulceacuícolas subantárticos y antárticos Wankara (Universidad de Magallanes). Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity. Teniente Muñoz 166 Puerto Williams Cabo de Hornos CL
Gillian Graham
MsC Student
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas Denton US
Simon Castillo
PhD student
Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Santiago CL
Author
James Kennedy
Regents Professor of Biological Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Denton US
Author
Peter Convey
Individual Merit Scientist
British Antarctic Survey. Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Universidad de Magallanes. Cambridge GB

Geographic Coverage

The dataset comprises the South Shetland Islands, specifically King George, Nelson, Robert, Livingston and Deception Islands in the Maritime Antarctic, South Georgia in the sub-Antarctic, Horn and Navarino Islands in the CHBR (southern South America, Chile).

Bounding Coordinates South West [-64, -69], North East [-53, -35]

Taxonomic Coverage

The present dataset reports occurrences of the specie Parochlus steinenii.

Species  Parochus steinenii (winged Antarctic midge)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2014-01-10 / 2019-02-26

Project Data

This proposal aims to understand biogeographical patterns and the processes responsible of the origin, adaptation and diversification of the Southern Ocean (SO) biota, particularly of two chironomid midges. We will study the role of historical climatic changes and life-history traits in the distribution of genetic lineages across a latitudinal gradient. We will amplify specific mtDNA and nucDNA markers, identify and characterize genomic and transcriptomic novelties associated to the adaptation of the biota in different areas and will conduct studies of ecophysiological performance and tolerance in the selected taxa including major environmental variables such as temperature. We aim to better understand about the processes involved in the origin, diversification and resilience of the SO biota in space and time.

Title Dipterans in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions: are they ready for the changes?
Funding Chile’s National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT), the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH) and ANID PIA Apoyo CCTE (projects 11130451, RT_48_16, and AFB170008, respectively)
Study Area Description This project will be conducted along a latitudinal and environmental gradient expanding from the southern tip of South America in the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion, through the Scotia Arc and maritime Antarctic islands.
Design Description The study was conducted throughout the latitudinal and environmental gradient that includes the southern tip of South America in the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion (54-57°S), and the Scotia Arc distribution of P. steinenii in the sub-Antarctic (South Georgia, 53-54°S) and Maritime Antarctic (South Shetland Islands, 63-64°S) regions. The geographical range of the study involves both small-scale microhabitat environmental gradients and the larger spatial scale 10-degree latitudinal gradient. In the maritime Antarctic South Shetland Islands, we specifically surveyed ice-free areas on Deception, Livingston, Greenwich, Robert, Nelson, and King George Islands. In the north-west coast of Antarctic Peninsula, we surveyed the Trinity Peninsula and Litchfield Island. In the CHBR, we surveyed altitudinal gradients located along the north coast of Navarino Island, in Horn Island and the Diego Ramirez archipelago. Parochlus steinenii was found throughout the study area excepting the Diego Ramírez archipelago and the two locations along the north-west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Note that, more widely, the species has never been recorded in extensive terrestrial/freshwater studies from any location along the Antarctic Peninsula or from the South Orkney Islands (Chown & Convey, 2016). Fieldwork in the Antarctic was conducted during six austral summer seasons (2013/14 – 2018/19) during field expeditions organized by the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH) to the South Shetland Islands and the British Antarctic Survey to South Georgia. In the Magellanic sub-Antarctic region of southern Chile (in the CHBR), fieldwork was organized by the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program of the Universidad de Magallanes. To characterize the distribution of P. steinenii in the South Shetland Islands, we conducted intensive surveys throughout accessible ice-free areas. All accessible sites were sampled for a period of 4-6 h, depending on climatic conditions and logistic support. We additionally sourced all available information from the existing literature (see Wirth & Gressitt, 1967; Brundin, 1970; Allegrucci et al., 2006; Hann & Reinhard, 2006; Toro et al., 2006; Rico & Quesada, 2013). We assessed the presence/absence of P. steinenii (as larvae, pupae or adults) by searching close to the shoreline of lakes and streams, and specifically under rocks and vegetation, and in sediments.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Tamara Contador
Metadata Provider
Melisa Gañan

Sampling Methods

To determine the presence of Parochlus steinenii through the areas described, intensive field surveys were conducted through accessible ice-free areas. At each surveyed location, all accessible rivers, streams, lagoons and lakes were searched in detail over a period of 3-6 h, depending on the weather conditions and local logistics. Presence/absence was determined by examining the shoreline habitats to confirm the presence of larvae, pupae or adults under stones, rocks, sediment and/or submerged vegetation. Water body typology and macrohabitat were described following Hans & Reinhardt (2006). Each site visited was georeferenced using a Garmin 78SC GPS. Climatic variables (water temperature, air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) were measured and, finally, samples collected of living individuals for research into phenology and physiology, and of individuals immediately preserved in alcohol (95%) for genetic studies. All samples were transported to the Wankara Laboratory at Magallanes University in Puerto Williams, Chile. Characteristics of the species according to the taxonomic key of Wirth & Gressitt (1967) were verified in the laboratory. The species was recorded in all locations surveyed except Diego Ramirez Island and the north-west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Survey data were combined with information from a careful bibliographic review.

Study Extent The area of study in Maritime Antarctica includes the South Shetland Islands and part of the north-west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, both of which are included in Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Region (ACBR) 3, North-west Antarctic Peninsula (for more information see Terauds et al., 2012; Terauds & Lee, 2016). In the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (Magallanes sub-Antarctic region, Rozzi et al., 2012), the study area includes the Navarino Island, the Cabo de Hornos National Park and the Diego Ramírez Marine Park. Records of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia are also included. During surveys the presence of any life stage of the species was recorded, macrohabitat was described, climatic variables recorded and a reference collection of individuals made.
Quality Control Each record of the species obtained in the field was georeferenced using a Garmin 78SC GPS. Most records obtained from literature included geographical coordinates. Where this was not the case, records were assigned a georeference by identification of the body of water described in the study. Geographic names used for records presented here are the official name used in the maps prepared by the SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica (CGA) and by the Military Geographical Institute (IGM) of Chile. For sites lacking formal names, ‘unofficial’ names were assigned.

Method step description:

  1. The study was conducted throughout the latitudinal and environmental gradient that includes the southern tip of South America in the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion (54-57°S), and the Scotia Arc distribution of P. steinenii in the sub-Antarctic (South Georgia, 53-54°S) and Maritime Antarctic (South Shetland Islands, 63-64°S) regions. The geographical range of the study involves both small-scale microhabitat environmental gradients and the larger spatial scale 10-degree latitudinal gradient. In the maritime Antarctic South Shetland Islands, we specifically surveyed ice-free areas on Deception, Livingston, Greenwich, Robert, Nelson, and King George Islands. In the north-west coast of Antarctic Peninsula we surveyed the Trinity Peninsula and Litchfield Island. In the CHBR, we surveyed altitudinal gradients located along the north coast of Navarino Island, in Horn Island and the Diego Ramirez archipelago. Parochlus steinenii was found throughout the study area excepting the Diego Ramírez archipelago and the two locations along the north-west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Note that, more widely, the species has never been recorded in extensive terrestrial/freshwater studies from any location along the Antarctic Peninsula or from the South Orkney Islands (Chown & Convey, 2016). Fieldwork in the Antarctic was conducted during six austral summer seasons (2013/14 – 2018/19) during field expeditions organized by the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH) to the South Shetland Islands and the British Antarctic Survey to South Georgia. In the Magellanic sub-Antarctic region of southern Chile (in the CHBR), fieldwork was organized by the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program of the Universidad de Magallanes. To characterize the distribution of P. steinenii in the South Shetland Islands, we conducted intensive surveys throughout accessible ice-free areas. All accessible sites were sampled for a period of 4-6 h, depending on climatic conditions and logistic support. We additionally sourced all available information from the existing literature (see Wirth & Gressitt, 1967; Brundin, 1970; Allegrucci et al., 2006; Hann & Reinhard, 2006; Toro et al., 2006; Rico & Quesada, 2013). We assessed the presence/absence of P. steinenii (as larvae, pupae or adults) by searching close to the shoreline of lakes and streams, and specifically under rocks and vegetation, and in sediments.

Collection Data

Collection Name Colección de Invertebrados Antárticos y Subantárticos del Laboratorio Dulceacuícola Wankara de la Universidad de Magallanes
Parent Collection Identifier urn:UMAG:WANKARA:Inv:Dip:AQ:Pstei and urn:UMAG:WANKARA:Inv:Dip:CL:Pstei.
Specimen preservation methods Alcohol
Curatorial Units Between 15 and 20 per 5 ml glass vials

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Allegrucci, G., Carchini, G., Todisco, V., Convey, P. & Sbordoni, V. A molecular phylogeny of Antarctic Chironomidae and its implications for biogeographical history. Polar Biol. 29, 320-326 (2006). DOI 10.1007/s00300-005-0056-7
  2. Chown, S.L. & Convey, P. Antarctic entomology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 61, 119-137 (2016). doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023537
  3. Brundin, L. Diptera: Chironomidae of South Georgia. Pacific Insects Monogr. 23, 276 (1970).
  4. Hahn, S. & Reinhardt, K. Habitat preference and reproductive traits in the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae). Antarct. Sci. 18, 175 (2006). DOI: 10.1017/S0954102006000204
  5. Rico, E. & Quesada, A. Distribution and ecology of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) on Byers Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. Antarct. Sci. 25, 288–291 (2013). doi:10.1017/S095410201200096X
  6. Rozzi, R., Armesto, J.J., Gutiérrez, J., Massardo, F., Likens, G., Anderson, C.B., Poole, A., Moses, K., Hargrove, G., Mansilla,, A., Kennedy, J.H., Willson, M., Jax, K., Jones, C., Callicott, J.B., & Kalin, M.T. Integrating ecology and environmental ethics: Earth stewardship in the southern end of the Americas. BioScience 62, 226-236 (2012). DOI: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.3.4
  7. Terauds, A., Chown, S., Morgan, F., Peat, J., Watts, D., Keys, H., Convey, P. & Bergstrom, D. Conservation biogeography of the Antarctic. Divers. Distrib. 18, 726-741 (2012).
  8. Terauds, A. & Lee, J. R. Antarctic biogeography revisited: updating the Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions. Divers. Distrib. 22, 836–840 (2016). DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00925.x
  9. Wirth, W.W. & Gressitt, J.L. Diptera: Chironomidae (midges). Antarctic Research Series Entomology of Antarctica Vol. 10 (1967).

Additional Metadata

Two publications have been generated from these data: 1. Gañán Mora, M., T.A. Contador & J.H. Kennedy. 2015. La vida en los extremos: el uso de SIG para estudiar la distribución de la mosca antártica alada, Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae), en las Islas Shetland del Sur (Antártica marítima).Pp.1599-1608, in de la Riva, J., P. Ibarra, R. Montorio & M. Rodrigues (eds.). Análisis espacial y representación geográfica: innovación y aplicación. Universidad de Zaragoza-AGE. ISBN: 978-84-92522-95-8. 2. Contador, T., Gañan, M., Bizama, G., Fuentes-Jaque, G., Morales, L., Rendoll, J., Simoes, F., Kennedy, J., Rozzi, R., Convey, P. 2019. Assessing distribution shifts and ecophysiological characteristics of the only Antarctic winged-midge under climate change scenarios. Scientific Reports. Accepted for Publication.

Purpose This database was developed as one of the main objectives of two Chilean-funded research projects addressing understanding the effects of climate change on sub-Antarctic and Antarctic insects. It provides a robust and up-to-date dataset documenting the distribution of Parochlus steinenii in the Maritime Antarctic, the sub-Antarctic and the CHBR in southern South America (Chile).
Maintenance Description This database will be updated as new data is obtained
Alternative Identifiers 30c49fbf-4e2e-482e-bb49-4d294bc332cb
http://gbif-chile.mma.gob.cl/ipt/resource?r=records_parochlus_steinenii